Top International trade agreements with EGYPT

International trade agreements are agreements between countries, or between one country and an economic grouping, that aim to increase trade between the signatory parties by eliminating customs duties on all or most of each party’s exports.


International trade agreements with Egypt

As well as agreeing to reduce non-tariff barriers according to an agreed-upon regulation that is applied by all parties. And here are some of these international trade agreements:



Agadir Agreement

Term of agreement

The agreement was signed on February 22, 2004, and into force on 26-03-2007

Participating countries

The Agadir Agreement was signed between Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Jordan

Egypt benefits from the agreement

  • Applying cumulative rules of origin contributes to strengthening and supporting economic and trade cooperation among member states.
  • Striving to implement and develop the Greater Arab Free Trade Zone and contribute to the efforts exerted to establish a common Arab market.
  • The Agadir Declaration allows greater benefits from the expansion of the European Union markets after the accession of ten new countries to its membership.
  • The Agadir Declaration would work on developing trade exchange between Egypt and the Arab countries that signed it, especially if we know that the volume of inter-Arab trade does not exceed 10% of their total trade.
  • The agreement addresses many important issues such as customs regulations, rules of origin, government procurement, financial transactions, preventive measures, nascent industries, subsidies and dumping, intellectual property, standard specifications, and the establishment of a dispute settlement mechanism. to European markets and will lead to increased investments and regional cooperation among member states.



Greater Arab Free Trade Area Agreement (GAFTA)

Term of agreement

The Agreement to Facilitate and Develop Trade Exchange began on January 1, 1998, with a reduced rate of 10% annually.

Participating countries

The number of Arab countries that have joined so far has reached 17 Arab countries, namely:

Jordan, UAE, Bahrain, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, Palestine, and Yemen.

Three member states in the region have not yet begun to implement the gradual reduction of customs duties fees and taxes with a similar effect, namely (Palestine, Sudan, and Yemen).

Egypt benefits from the agreement

  • The Arab rules of origin are being dealt with to implement the agreement to facilitate and develop trade exchange between Arab countries. The added value rate is not less than 40%.
  • Detailed Arab rules of origin derived from the rules of origin of the European Union are now being prepared to protect Arab production from entry into Arab countries of products that do not belong to the member states of the agreement.
  • All non-custom restrictions (seasonal restrictions, import and export licenses, and all quantitative and monetary restrictions) have been canceled.
  • Dispute Settlement Mechanism: The list of procedural rules related to the mechanism for settling disputes between Arab countries has been finalized.
  • Cancellation of certification of certificates of origin and accompanying documents by embassies and consulates.
  • Services Agreement: Tables of countries’ obligations within the framework of the Services Agreement are being discussed to reach an agreement regarding services, taking into account the obligations of Arab countries within the framework of the World Trade Organization.
  • A detailed schedule of fees for services is currently being prepared to determine whether they include some fees with a similar effect.
  • Treatment of free zone products: Goods and products that are produced within the free zones are not subject to the provisions of the Agreement to Facilitate and Develop Trade Exchange and its executive program for establishing a free trade zone, i.e. they are not subject to any customs reductions or exemptions.



Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Agreement (COMESA)

Term of agreement

The COMESA  agreement was signed on June 29, 1998, and customs exemptions were applied to imports from the rest of the member states as of February 17, 1999.

Participating countries

The number of Arab countries that have joined Egypt, Kenya, Sudan, Mauritius, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Djibouti, Malawi, Madagascar, Rwanda, and Burundi

Egypt benefits from the agreement

  • The population of the COMESA member states is 380 million, and thus it represents a spacious market and outlet for many Egyptian products.
  • Benefiting from mutual exemptions, as eleven countries have joined the COMESA free trade zone, these countries grant their imports from other countries a complete exemption, in addition to Egypt, applying the principle of reciprocity with the rest of the member states.
  • It is possible to take advantage of the structure of the member states’ imports, as these countries accept to import many commodities in which Egypt enjoys a high advantage in their production. At the top of that list are rice, foodstuffs, household appliances, dried onions, ceramics, sanitary ware, medicines, car tires, aluminum and iron products Steel, yarn, textiles, and shoes.
  • It is clear from the production structure of the member states that they are countries that depend on the export of raw materials, raw materials, and main commodities such as copper, coffee, tea, raw hides, cattle, meat, sesame, corn, and tobacco. These are important commodities whose granting of exemption affects the well-being of the Egyptian consumer.
  • Benefit from the financial assistance provided by the African Development Bank and other international financial institutions in the field of developing exports to African countries.
  • Article 158 of the COMESA Agreement stipulates the encouragement of cooperation in the fields of investment, and Article 164 stipulates the liberalization of trade in services, which provides an opportunity for Egypt to export technical expertise, especially with Egypt’s superiority in the field of trade in services, especially contracting works.
  • The agreement provides for the establishment of an advanced system for exchanging information within the member states.
  • There are other gains resulting from what was included in the agreement in the field of industrial and agricultural cooperation, as well as in the field of transport and communications.


International trade agreements

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